Lgd. Viktor Klang

Systems all the way down

Viktor Klang bio photo

This is the third of several posts describing the evolution of scala.concurrent.Future in Scala 2.12.x. For the previous post, click here.

Missing canonical combinators: transform

Now, if you’re thinking “Hey Viktor, there’s already a transform-method on Future!” then you’re most definitely right. And I’ll explain myself.

When the old transform1 was added, many moons ago, it was a means of mapping over successes and failures. However, the astute reader might notice that it is asymmetric: an exception thrown when mapping over the successful case will result in a failed Future, but there is no way to turn a failed case into a successful one.

One way of looking at a scala.concurrent.Future is that it’s an “Eventually[Try[_]]”, in other words, a container which will eventually contain a scala.util.Try parameterized by some type.

What if we had a way to transform Future more generically, and symmetrically?

Perhaps its signature ought to look something like this:

def transform[S](f: Try[T] => Try[S])(implicit executor: ExecutionContext): Future[S]

So for instance, that would mean that Future.map could be implemented as follows (and is!):

  def map[S](f: T => S)(implicit executor: ExecutionContext): Future[S] = transform(_.map(f))

And Future.recover is possible to implement as this (and is!):

def recover[U >: T](pf: PartialFunction[Throwable, U])(implicit executor: ExecutionContext): Future[U] =
    transform { _ recover pf }

It also makes it dead simple to lift a Future[T] to a Future[Try[T]]:

val someFuture: Future[String] = 
val lifted/*: Future[Try[String]]*/ = someFuture.transform(Try(_))

Nice, right?


  1. Strictly more powerful / generic than the previous transform-method
  2. Straightforward to consume/transform a Futures Try[_] without having to use onComplete or unboxing Future.value
  3. For implementors of the Future trait, less methods to implement

Click here for the next part in this blog series.



  def transform[S](s: T => S, f: Throwable => Throwable)(implicit executor: ExecutionContext): Future[S]